Development of numerical models for reinforced-concrete and stone masonry structures under seismic loading based on discrete cracks (SeismoNuMod)

Razvoj numeričkih modela armirano-betonskih i kamenih zidanih konstrukcija izloženih potresnom opterećenju zasnovanih na diskretnim pukotinama


Project Summary

Crack opening is one of the dominant causes of nonlinearity in brittle and quasi-brittle structures which leads to localized failure and stands out as a serious challenge in numerical modelling. The process of crack initiation starts at a micro-scale, and with progressive growth, micro-cracks coalesce into macro-cracks representing discontinuities in the material. Therefore, a realistic modelling of crack initiation and propagation is one of the key factors that affect the reliability of the model for analysing the structures, especially those subjected to earthquakes. Sophisticated numerical models based on time dependent and incremental dynamic analysis can play an important role in simulating the behaviour of such structures before and after collapse. This project aims to develop two nonlinear numerical models for incremental dynamic analysis of structures based on the model of discrete cracks. The first one will be a novel 3D model for reinforced concrete and stone masonry structures strengthened with clamps and bolts based on the combined finite discrete element method where the cracks are modelled through the contact elements implemented between finite elements. The model enables crack initiation and propagation, dynamic interaction of separate elements and monitoring of structural behaviour before and after the collapse. The second model will be based on the finite element method with embedded discontinuity and embedded reinforcement, which allows for crack initiation and propagation independent of finite element mesh and will be applied to reinforced concrete structures. The novel numerical models for reinforced concrete structures will be validated by available experimental research, while our own experiments are planned to be performed at shaking table for the validation of stone masonry structure model. Thereafter, the comparative analysis of the behaviour of real structures with both models will be conducted.


Project team

Project team is consisting of the researchers from Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy (FCEAG Split) and from several international institutions:

  • Prof. Željana Nikolić (FCEAG Split)
  • Prof. Pavao Marović (FCEAG Split)
  • Assist. prof. Nikolina Živaljić (FCEAG Split)
  • Assist. prof. Hrvoje Smoljanović (FCEAG Split)
  • Assist. prof. Ivan Balić (FCEAG Split)
  • Mijo Nikolić, PhD (FCEAG Split)
  • Prof. Adnan Ibrahimbegović, Sorbonne Universités (UT Compiegne, France)
  • Prof. Lidija Krstevska, IZIIS Skopje (St. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Macedonia)
  • Prof. Mladen Glibić (University of Mostar, Faculty of civil engineering, BiH)
  • Mladen Kustura (University of Mostar, Faculty of civil engineering, BiH)

Prof. Željana Nikolić, Ph. D., principal investigator of the project, is an expert in structural mechanics, earthquake engineering and the development of numerical models for simulation of the behaviour of structures subjected to static, dynamic and earthquake loads. She has authored more than 100 scientific papers in this field. She has participated in several research projects related to numerical modelling of the structures as principal investigator or collaborator.

Prof. Pavao Marović, Ph. D., is an experienced researcher and expert in the testing of all types of structures (bridges, crane paths), structural elements (floor structures, grandstand elements), and models of the structures. He participated in several international and national projects related to experimental and numerical investigations and analyses of the behaviour of different types of structures. He is the author of numerous books and scientific articles in this field.

Assistant Professor Nikolina Živaljić, Ph. D., is a researcher at the project with experience in development of numerical models of reinforced concrete and masonry structures.

Assistant Professor Hrvoje Smoljanović, Ph. D., is a researcher at the project with experience in development of numerical models of dry stone and modern masonry structures, as well as reinforced concrete structures.

Assistant Professor Ivan Balić, Ph. D., is a researcher at the project with experience in the analysis of the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures exposed to earthquake load using non-linear dynamic methods.

Mijo Nikolić, Ph. D., is researcher at the project with experience in the development of the finite element numerical models capable of simulating the failure related to structural and rock mechanics.

Prof. Adnan Ibrahimbegović, Ph. D., is one of the leading international experts in computational mechanics and numerical modelling, currently employed at Sorbonne Universités, UT Compiegne, France. Recently he has been intensively working with finite element models with embedded discontinuities capable of representing the structural failure. He collaborates with the numerous research teams at the universities over the world, as well as industrial partners. He has authored 6 books and more than 100 scientific journal papers.

Prof. Lidija Krstevska, Ph. D., is an expert in the analysis and experimental research of structures under static and dynamic loads, employed at the Institute IZIIS in Skopje, Macedonia. She has authored over 140 scientific papers and more than 160 studies in this area. She has participated in a large number of international research projects on the topic of earthquake engineering.

Prof. Mladen Glibić, Ph. D., is an expert in structural engineering employed at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Mostar. Recently, his research activities are related to reconstruction of existing masonry structures and experimental investigations of stone masonry structures.

Mladen Kustura, PhD student, is employed at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Mostar. He is currently working on a dissertation on the topic of experimental research of stone masonry structures. These investigations are performed at Institute IZIIS Skopje.


Objectives of the project

This project consists of several parts aiming to develop numerical models for structures exposed to seismic loading based on discrete cracks. The parts of the project are as it follows:

  • The development of a 3D numerical model for reinforced concrete structures exposed to seismic load based on the FEM-DEM method
  • The development of a 2D numerical model for reinforced concrete structures exposed to seismic load based on ED-FEM method
  • The development of a 3D numerical model for strengthened dry stone masonry structures exposed to seismic load based on the FEM-DEM method and conduction of experiments necessary for the validation of results
  • Comparative analyses of the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures with FEM-DEM and ED-FEM models


Activities

  • The development of a 3D model for the simulation of behaviour of concrete structures under static and dynamic loading (ED-FEM model)
  • The development of a finite discrete element model for reinforcing bars and embedding in the 3D model of concrete
  • The analysis of RC structures for static, cyclic and seismic loads by ED-FEM model and comparison with the available experimental data
  • The development of hybrid quadrilateral element for crack opening inside the finite element based on embedded discontinuity approach (ED-FEM method) for static and dynamic analysis of the structures
  • The development of a numerical model of reinforcing bars with embedded discontinuity for simulation of the yielding and localized failure of reinforcement in the crack
  • The analysis of RC structures for static, cyclic and seismic loads by ED-FEM model and comparison with the available experimental data
  • The development of a 3D model for dry stone masonry structures for static and dynamic loading
  • The development of a numerical model of steel clamps and bolts and embedding in the 3D model for dry stone masonry structures
  • The verification of a developed 3D model for dry stone masonry structures strengthened with steel clamps and bolts for static and cyclic loading
  • Experimental investigations of the behaviour of existing stone masonry structures from our surroundings (Prothyron in the Peristyle square of the Diocletian's Palace in Split) exposed to earthquake loading
  • The verification of developed 3D model for dry stone masonry structures strengthened with steel clamps and bolts for earthquake loading by comparison with the experimental data obtained at seismic shaking table
  • Comparative analyses of the behaviour of RC structures with FEM-DEM and ED-FEM models and conclusions in terms of effectiveness, time of calculation, the accuracy of the results and their applicability in the practical investigations of earthquake resistance of the stuctures


Publications

Journal articles in CC journals:

Nikolić, M., Do, X. N., Ibrahimbegovic, A., Nikolić, Ž.: Crack propagation in dynamics by embedded strong discontinuity approach: Enhanced solid versus discrete lattice model. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering. 340, 480-499 (2018) (link)

Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N., Nikolić, Ž., Munjiza, A.: Numerical analysis of 3D dry-stone masonry structures by combined finite-discrete element method. International journal of solids and structures. 136-137, 150-167 (2018) (link)

Nikolić, Ž., Živaljić, N., Smoljanović, H., Balić, I.: Numerical modelling of reinforced-concrete structures under seismic loading based on the finite element method with discrete inter-element cracks. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics. 46 (1), 159-178 (2017) (link)

Smoljanović, H., Nikolić, Ž., Živaljić, N., Balić, I.: Stability of rigid blocks exposed to single-pulse excitation. Acta mechanica. 227 (6), 1671-1684 (2016) (link)

Scientific papers in other journals:

Nikolić, Ž., Živaljić, N., Smoljanović, H.: Influence of ductility classes on seismic response of reinforced concrete structures. Coupled Systems Mechanics. 7 (2), 177-195 (2018) (link)

Nikolić, Ž., Krstevska, L., Marović, P., Smoljanović, H.: Shaking table test of scaled model of Protiron dry stone masonry structure. Proceedia Engineering. 199, 3386-3391 (2017) (link)

Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N., Nikolić, Ž., Munjiza, A.: Numerical model for confined masonry structures based on finite discrete element method. International journal for engineering modelling. 30 (1-4), 19-35 (2017) (link)

Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N.: Numerical modelling of dry stone masonry structures based on finite-discrete element method. International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering. 10 (8), 1032-1040 (2016) (link)

Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N.: Numerical analysis of masonry structures by finite-discrete element model. International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation. 1 (4), 330-350 (2016) (link)

Plenary/Keynote talks:

Nikolić, Ž., Živaljić, N., Smoljanović, H.: Influence of ductility classes to seismic response of reinforced concrete structures, In: Multiscale computational methods for solids and fluids. Ibrahimbegović, A., Boštjan, B., Kožar, I. (eds.), University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 64-65, (2017)

Invited lectures:

Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N.: Numerical modelling of strengthened dry-stone masonry structures, In: CD-ROM Proceedings of the abstracts of 12th International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting ACE-X 2018. Öchsner, A., Altenbach, H. (eds.), ACEX - Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting, 40-40, (2018) (poveznica)

Nikolić, Ž.: Numerical and experimental investigations of the behaviour of historical stone masonry structures, In: International PhD Program, 31st Plenary Meeting, Technical University of Braunschweig. Braunschweig, Germany, (2017) (poveznica)

Scientific conference papers with international peer-review:

Nikolić, Ž., Živaljić, N., Smoljanović, H.: Influence of ductility classes to seismic response of reinforced concrete structures, In: Multiscale computational methods for solids and fluids. Ibrahimbegović, A., Boštjan, B., Kožar, I. (eds.), University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 64-65, (2017) (poveznica)

Nikolić, Ž., Krstevska, L., Marović, P., Smoljanović, H.: Shaking table test of scaled model of Protiron dry stone masonry structure, In: Proceedings of the X International Conference on Structural Dynamics. Vestroni, F., Gattulli, V., Romeo, F. (eds.), Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 3386-3391, (2017) (poveznica)

Nikolić, M., Ćesić, J., Ibrahimbegović, A., Nikolić, Ž.: Lattice model for failure based on embedded strong discontinuities in dynamic framework, In: Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Computational Plasticity - Fundamentals and Applications. Oñate, E., Owen, D.R.J., Peric, D., Chiumenti, M. (eds.), CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain, 568-575, (2017) (poveznica)

Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N.: Numerical modelling of dry stone masonry structures based on finite-discrete element method, In: Conference proceedings of the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, WASET. International scholarly and scientific research & innovation, Venice, Italy, 18 (8) Part VIII, 1104-1112, (2016) (poveznica)

Živaljić, N., Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H., Balić, I.: Finite-discrete numerical modelling of reinforced concrete structures, In: Proceedings of the VII European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, ECCOMAS Congress 2016. Papadrakakis, M., Papadopoulos, V., Stefanou, G., Plevris, V. (eds.), Crete Island, Greece, 7522.pdf, (2016) (poveznica)

Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N.: Numerical Analysis of Masonry Structures by Finite Discrete Element Model, In: Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Croatian Society of Mechanics. Kožar, I., Bićanić, N., Jelenić, G., Čanađija, M. (eds.), Opatija, Croatia, Croatian Society of Mechanics, (2015) (poveznica)

Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N.: Application of finite discrete element method in dynamic analysis of masonry structures, In: Proceedings of the XIII International Conference on Computational Plasticity. Fundamentals and Applications. Oñate, E., Owen, D.R.J., Peric, D., Chiumenti, M. (eds.), Barcelona, Spain, 1020-1031, (2015) (poveznica)

Other refereed conference papers:

Živaljić, N., Smoljanović, H., Nikolić, Ž.: The influence of fracture energy on the cracks pattern of concrete blocks, In: Proceedings of the 7th Congress of Croatian Society of Mechanics. Marović, P., Galić, M., Krstulović-Opara, L. (eds.), Split, Croatia, Croatian Society of Mechanics, 217-222, (2016) (link)

Abstracts in Book of abstracts:

Nikolić, Ž., Krstevska, L., Marović, P., Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N.: Integrated Approach in Analysis of Historical Ancient Monuments, In: Book of Abstracts - 9th International Congress of Croatian Society of Mechanics. Marović, P., Krstulović-Opara, L., Galić, M. (eds.), Split, Croatia, Croatian Society of Mechanics, 77-77, (2018) (poveznica)

Živaljić, N., Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H.: Finite-discrete element modelling of spatial reinforced concrete structures, In: Book of Abstracts - 9th International Congress of Croatian Society of Mechanics. Marović, P., Krstulović-Opara, L., Galić, M. (eds.), Split, Croatia, Croatian Society of Mechanics, 105-105, (2018)

Živaljić, N., Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H.: Numerical Simulation of Reinforced Concrete Structure Fragmentation under the Impact Load, In: CD-ROM Proceedings of the abstracts of 12th International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting ACE-X 2018. Öchsner, A., Altenbach, H. (eds.), Amsterdam, Netherland, 39-39, (2018)

Nikolić, M., Do, X. N., Ibrahimbegovic, A., Nikolić, Ž.: Energy balance in simulations of dynamic localized failure propagation with strain softening, In: ECCM-ECFD 2018 (6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics). Kleiber, M., Van Brummelen, H., Papadrakakis, M. (eds.), Glasgow, UK, 1-1, (2018)

Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N., Nikolić, Ž., Krstevska, L.: Numerical modelling of metal connectors in historical dry-stone masonry structures, In: ECCM-ECFD 2018 (6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics). Kleiber, M., Van Brummelen, H., Papadrakakis, M. (eds.), Glasgow, UK, 1-1, (2018)

Nikolić, Ž., Krstevska, L., Marović, P., Smoljanović, H.: Shaking table test of scaled model of Protiron dry stone masonry structure, In: Book of Abstracts of the X International Conference on Structural Dynamics. Vestroni, F., Gattulli, V., Romeo, F. (eds.), Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 230-230, (2017)

Nikolić, Ž., Krstevska, L., Kustura, M., Živaljić, N., Smoljanović, H., Marović, P., Glibić, M.: Experimental investigations of the behaviour of strengthened stone masonry structures, In: CD-ROM Proceedings of the abstracts of 11th International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting, ACE-X 2017. Öchsner, A., Altenbach, H. (eds.), Vienna, Austria, 60-60, (2017)

Živaljić, N., Smoljanović, H., Nikolić, Ž., Balić, I.: Numerical modelling of reinforcing concrete structures by finite-discrete element method, In: CD-ROM Proceedings of the abstracts of 10th International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting, ACE-X 2016. Öchsner, A., Altenbach, H. (eds.), Split, Croatia, 40-40, (2016)

Nikolić, Ž., Smoljanović, H., Živaljić, N.: Numerical Analysis of Masonry Structures by Finite Discrete Element Model, In: Book of Abstracts - 8th International Congress of Croatian Society of Mechanics. Kožar, I., Bićanić, N., Jelenić, G., Čanađija, M. (eds.), Opatija, Croatia, Croatian Society of Mechanics, (2015)


Photo gallery

Team members at the working meeting in Split, March, 31th, 2016 (from the left to the right: Hrvoje Smoljanović, Mijo Nikolić, Ivan Balić, Nikolina Živaljić, Lidija Krstevska, Željana Nikolić, Pavao Marović, Mladen Glibić, Mladen Kustura)

View on Prothyron in the Peristyle square of the Diocletian's Palace in Split

Model of the Prothyron structure - discretization

Building of the physical model of the Prothyron structure (Skopje, 25.08.2016.)

Set up of the columns

Assemblage of the blocks of the broad gable

Fully assembled Protiron model

Video: Shaking table test, IZIIS Skopje (click to see the video)

Testing of stone blocks connected with clamp or dowel: (a) specimens and equipment; (b) pull-out of the clamp; (c) pull out of the dowel (testing was performed at IZIIS Skopje, Macedonia)

Set up for Kalthoff’s experiment

Video: Kalthoff’s experiment: crack opening in specimen subjected to the edge impact, simulation by discrete lattice model, applied impact velocity is v0 = 16.5 m/s (click to see the video)

Prof. Lidija Krstevska from Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Macedonia, gave a lecture on May 17th 2018, entitled “Experimental Mechanics”.

Prof. Adnan Ibrahimbegović from UTC Sorbonne Universités, France gave a lecture on September 12th 2018, entitled “Challenges in Mechanics and Coupled Systems”.